Monday, January 15, 2024

The Bowls (15.1–8)


And I saw another great and amazing sign in heaven: seven angels holding the last seven plagues, because God’s wrath is completed in them.

And I saw something like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and the ones who conquered the wild animal and its image and the number of its name—they stood at the sea of glass, holding God’s harps. And they sang the song of Moses, God’s slave, and the lamb’s song, saying, ‘Your works are great and amazing, Lord God the Almighty. Your ways are just and true, king of the nations. Who should not fear you, Lord, and glorify your name? Because you alone are holy, because all nations will come and worship in front of you, because your justice is revealed.’

And after these things I saw, and the temple of the tent of witness was opened in heaven. And the seven angels holding the seven plagues came out of the temple, clothed in pure, bright linen, and girded with golden belts around the chests. And one of the four animals gave the seven angels seven bowls full of God’s wrath, the one who lives for ever and ever. And the temple was filled with smoke from God’s glory and his power, and no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues of the seven angels were complete.


The song is little more than a conglomeration of passages from the Hebrew Bible. This introduction to the seven bowls is somewhat muddled. Seven angels appear, holding ‘the last seven plagues’. The temple then opens to reveal what was just seen, seven angels holding plagues. Then the angels are given ‘seven bowls full of God’s wrath’, which are poured out in chapter 16. The plagues are introduced three times, each as if it were the first time.



96.10 let them say among the nations, ‘Yhwh is king!’

105.5, 7 Remember the wonderful works he has done, his miracles […] He is Yhwh our god; his judgments are in all the earth.

145.17 Yhwh is just in all his ways


14.9 For the ways of Yhwh are right


6.1, 4 In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lofty; and the hem of his robe filled the temple. […] The pivots on the thresholds shook at the voices of those who called, and the house filled with smoke.

60.3 Nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your dawn.


10.7 Who would not fear you, O King of the nations?


32.4 his work is perfect, and all his ways are just.


15.1 Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to Yhwh

19.18 Now Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke, because the Lord had descended upon it in fire; the smoke went up like the smoke of a kiln, while the whole mountain shook violently.

38.21 These are the records of the tent, the tent of the covenant


1.16.8–14, 31 O give thanks to Yhwh, call on his name, make known his deeds among the peoples. Sing to him, sing praises to him, tell of all his wonderful works. Glory in his holy name; let the hearts of those who seek Yhwh rejoice. Seek Yhwh and his strength, seek his presence continually. Remember the wonderful works he has done, is miracles, and the judgments he uttered, O offspring of his servant Israel, children of Jacob, his chosen ones. He is Yhwh our god; his judgments are in all the earth. […] let them say among the nations, ‘Yhwh is king!’


8.5 They offer worship in a sanctuary that is a sketch and shadow of the heavenly one

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