Thursday, January 11, 2024

Trumpet Seven (11.14–19)


‘The second woe is past. See, the third one is coming soon.’

And the seventh angel blasted, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, ‘The kingdom of the cosmos has become our Lord’s and his Anointed One’s, and he will reign for ever and ever.’

And the twenty-four elders who sit on their thrones in front of God fell on their faces and worshiped God, saying, ‘We give thanks to you, Lord God the Almighty, who is and who was, that you took your immense power and began to reign. And the nations were angry, and your wrath came, and the time for the dead to be judged, and to give the reward to your slaves, the prophets and the holy ones and the ones who fear your name, small and great, and to destroy those who destroy the earth.’

And God’s temple in heaven was opened and the ark of his covenant was seen. And there were lightning flashes and booms and thunders and an earthquake and large hail.


The final trumpet seems to bring the revelation toward its conclusion, explicitly stating that ‘the time’ has now ‘come’ for the resurrection of the dead for the final judgment. The author even communicates this with the deliberate choice to modify the divine epithet. No longer is God ‘who is and who was and who is coming’. He has now arrived, so he is simply ‘who is and who was’. Likewise, the heavenly temple is now ‘opened’, such that the innermost room containing the ark of the covenant can be ‘seen’ by all. Despite all this, the book is only halfway complete.



2.1–3 Why do the nations conspire, and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against Yhwh and his Anointed One, saying, ‘Let us burst their bonds asunder, and cast their cords from us.’

29.3, 10 The voice of Yhwh is over the waters; the god of glory thunders, Yhwh, over mighty waters. […] Yhwh sits enthroned over the flood; Yhwh sits enthroned as king for ever.


27.13 And on that day a great trumpet will be blown, and those who were lost in the land of Assyria and those who were driven out to the land of Egypt will come and worship Yhwh on the holy mountain at Jerusalem.


1.8.10–11 And when the priests came out of the holy place, a cloud filled the house of Yhwh, so that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud; for the glory of Yhwh filled the house of Yhwh.


15.18 ‘Yhwh will reign for ever and ever.’

19.16 On the morning of the third day there was thunder and lightning, as well as a thick cloud on the mountain

1 Enoch

14.10–12, 18, 22 I drew near to a great house built of hailstones; and the walls of this house were like stone slabs, and they were all of snow, and the floor was of snow. And the ceiling was like shooting stars and lightning flashes; and among them were fiery cherubim, and their heaven was water, and a flaming fire encircled all their walls, and the doors blazed with fire […] and the voice of the cherubs […] Flaming fire encircled him and a great fire stood by him

Joseph & Asenath

19.5 and the Lord God will reign as king over many nations for ever

Sibylline Oracles

3.55–56 Alas, wretched one, when will that day come, and the judgment of the great king immortal God?

Ascension of Isaiah

4.18 There will be a resurrection and a judgment in their midst in those days

2 Baruch

13.11 But now, you nations and tribes, you are guilty, because you have trodden the earth all this time, and because you have used creation unrighteously.

Greek Revelation of Ezra

4.36 ‘And after these things a trumpet, and the graves will be opened and the dead will rise up uncorrupted.’

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